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JavaScript was developed by Brendan Eich in only 10 days in 1995.  It was originally called Mocha, but switched to Java script when it got the rights to do so due to similarities in the language syntax and as a marketing technique since Java was a well-known language at the time.  Java is an object-oriented language that gives the programmer control over the objects in its environment - this makes it a very common language in web programming.  It is similar to Java in syntax and in looks, but it does not require data types to be declared and it cannot automatically write to a hard disc.  It is not an open source language, as it works with ECMAScript.  Some libraries are open to be modified and added, so it is possible to modify the functionality of the language. It is a compiled language like Java. 

 

 

Resources - 

https://www.w3.org/community/webed/wiki/A_Short_History_of_JavaScript

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https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Guide/Introduction

 

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)

The first version of modern PHP, known as PHP/FI was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994.  It grew from a language that he used simply for his personal use to a language that is commonly used as a "general purpose scripting language especially suited for web development".  It is useful in web development mostly because it can be embedded directly into HTML.  It uses Perl like variables and syntax that gains in simplicity but loses some functionality.  The fact that is is an open source language so developers can modify and submit their own work to be added to the language allowed it to grow into the language it is today with object oriented features and better syntax.  The programmers tried to get it to resemble C so that programmers familiar with C could use PHP as well.  PHP code is generally interpreted, but in some cases it can be compiled which can increase its performance much like Java and Javascript.

References:

http://php.net/manual/en/intro-whatis.php

http://www.php.net/

http://php.net/manual/en/history.php.php