The goal of Ruby's developer, Yukihiro Matsumoto, was to create a language with the best aspects of the languages he liked best that could be programmed in a way that is "natural" for its users. It uses very few symbols, choosing rather to use English words to make it easier to code and read. It was first released in 1995, but it took 11 for it to be accepted by the computer science community. One of the major benefits of Ruby is that it is an open-source language. Users can modify the language to make it the way that they need it to be for the purpose of their project. Matsumodo wanted the language to have a wide range of uses, much like Python, but aimed for the language to be object oriented. Unlike C and C++, it handles garbage collection, so there is no need for the programmer to be concerned with memory storage and use. Finally, Ruby is an interpreted language. There are many different interpreters that allow the programmer to use different aspects of the language.
The goal of R's developers, Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman, was to build on the bases of S (a programming language developed in 1976 by John Chambers and rewritten in C in 1988 to make it easier to use all machines). They wanted to make a programming language to aid in "statistical computing and graphics" by creating an interactive programming environment that takes the hard core coding out of the process. The graphics are superior to many statistical language, and the open source component allows users to continue to make and add to packages to help their fellow programmers. A down side to this is that developments happen based on the desire of the community, so it can a long time to make some improvements. R is usually especially for its data storage abilities and array/matrix manipulation for easy statistical analysis, but it is also has basic loops, conditionals, and recursion abilities. It is a compiled language.
Bjarne Stroustrup started the path to developing C++ in 1979 when he was working on his doctoral thesis. He originally called it C with Classes because his main goal was to take the portability of C and add the functionality of classes without sacrificing the speed of C. He changed the name to C++ in 1983 because ++ is used to increment in C++ and he thought that C++ is one step above C. It is similar to C in the fact that the user needs to manage memory use (unlike languages like Python and Ruby that deal with memory use using garbage collection). Parts of C++ are open source, which allows the user to make compilers and libraries to be used in their own work, but the main C libraries are not open source and can be used on almost every machine. C++ is a compiled programming language that compiles the code directly into machine language, which makes it a fast programming language when used correctly.
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