Passamaquoddy Bay is the located in the eastern most part of the United States. It is part of the Eastern Costal Rivers watershed. However, the St. Croix is the largest fresh water flow into the bay. Rising in the Chiputneticook Lakes, within the St. Croix watershed, the St. Croix acts as the natural boundary between Canada and the United States. Draining into the Bay of Fundy, the total area of the estuary is approximately 1,500 square miles. Throughout the 20th century the river has become a highly attractive recreational river. Hydroelectric power plants has also been drawn to the river. Vanceboro Dam, Grand Falls Dam, Kellyland Dam, Forest City Dam, Woodland Dam, and Milltown Dam all impound part of the St. Croix River on its journey to Passamaquoddy Bay. In 1987 Maine Statutes decreed "no person may undertake any further commercial, industrial or residential development in the area within 250 feet of the St. Croix River from the Grand Falls flowage to the north end of Wingdam Island" in concordance with Title 12-§405-A. However, the excessive fragmentation of the river has created a hostile environment to the once abundant Atlantic salmon. Major population reductions were evident after the instillation of the Milltown Dam in Calais-St. Stephen. Attempts to restock the river have been initiated in the past decade, although success has been limited. Other species on the St. Croix affected by the numerous dams are the alewives and shellfish. The alewives in particular have seen extreme population declines from over 1.2 million, twenty years to go, to just over ten thousand in 2006. The International St. Croix River Board Annual Report (2006) also reported to be within the extreme values for the year. However, reports of excessive biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, wastewater flow, and bacteria levels were reported from the town of Baileyville. Various initiatives have been taken to reverse low animal populations and high levels of pollution. These programs include the St. Croix Estuary Project, implementations by the Canada Water Quality Monitoring offices, and Administrative Consent Agreements. 

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